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一、心理咨询的含义   
    心理咨询是心理咨询师运用心理学原理和技术来协助当事人解决心理困扰的活动过程。具体来讲,心理咨询是指咨询者就来访者发展方面的问题或适应方面的困难,在为其提供能够自如进行心理交流的气氛中,运用专门的心理学方法,通过疑义解惑、忠告建议等以帮助、指导、启发来访者发现并利用其潜在的积极因素,处理和解决自己的问题或困难,是心理技能得以调整和提高的活动过程。 
   
    二、心理咨询与心理治疗   
    心理治疗是在良好的治疗关系基础上,由经过专业训练的治疗者运用心理治疗的相关理论和技术,对来访者进行帮助的过程,以消除或缓解来访者的问题或障碍,促进其人格向健康、协调的方向发展。 
   
    心理咨询在英文中被称之为counseling,帮助者在咨询过程中被称作咨询师(counselor),求助者被称作来访者(client);心理治疗在英文中被称之为psychotherapy,帮助者在心理治疗过程中被称为治疗师(therapist),求助者被称为病人或患者(patient)。心理咨询与心理治疗的发展均有近百年的历史,二者既有很多相似之处又各有不同之处。 
   
    (一)相似之处   
    第一,二者所采用的理论和方法常常是一致的。例如:咨询心理学家对来访者采用的来访者中心治疗的理论和方法或合理情绪疗法的理论与技术和心理治疗家采用的同种理论与技术别无二致。 
   
    第二,二者进行工作的对象常常是相似的。例如:心理咨询人员与心理治疗工作者可能都会面对来访者的婚姻问题。 
   
    第三,在强调帮助来访者成长和改变方面,二者是相似的。咨询与心理治疗都希望通过帮助者和求助者之间的互动,达到是求助者改变和增长的目的。   
    第四,二者都注重建立帮助者与求助者的良好人际关系,认为这是帮助求助者改变和成长的必要条件。   
 
    (二)不同之处   
    第一,心理咨询的工作对象主要是正常人,正在恢复或已复原的病人。而心理治疗则主要是针对有心理障碍的人进行工作的。 
   
    第二,心理咨询着重处理的是正常人所遇到的各种问题,主要问题有日常生活中人际关系的问题,职业选择方面的问题,教育过程中的问题,婚姻家庭中的问题等等。而心理治疗的适应范围则主要为某些神经症、某些性心理障碍、心身疾病、康复中的精神病人等。  
 
    第三,心理咨询用时较短,一般咨询次数为1次至几次;而心理治疗费时较长,治疗由几次到几十次不等,甚至次数更多,经年累月才可完成。 
   
    第四,心理咨询在意识层次进行,更重视其教育性、支持性、指导性工作,焦点在于找出已经存在于来访者自身的内在因素,并使之得到发展或在对现存条件分析的基础上提供改进意见。心理治疗的某些学派,主要是针对无意识领域进行工作,并且其工作具有对峙性,重点在于重建病人的人格。 
   
    第五,心理咨询工作是更为直接地针对某些有限的具体目标进行的;心理治疗的目的则比较模糊,其目标是使人产生改变和进步。   
 
    此外,咨询心理学家与心理治疗家所接受的专业训练也大有不同。还有,咨询多数在非医疗情景中开展,如在学校或社区中进行,应用多种方式介入到来访者的生活环境中;而心理治疗多在医疗的情境中或在治疗者的私人诊所中进行。  

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